Virginia’s Mineral Resources

 

Dorothea Martin, NSF Scholar, 2002-03

Mathematics & Science Center and Virginia Commonwealth University

 

Developed with funding from the National Science Foundation (DGE0086320)

 

Major

Understanding

Virginia can be divided into five physiographic provinces, based on the general configuration of the land surface. Distinct combinations of rock types underlie each of these physiographic provinces, and each has a somewhat different geologic history. The processes by which Virginia’s nonrenewable resources were formed began millions of years ago and cannot be duplicated. Those nonrenewable resources have been mined and are very important to the state’s economy.

 

Grade/Subject

Science 6; Earth Science

 

Objectives

Use a map to analyze resources that have been mined in Virginia; the map may be a highway map.

 

 

Demonstrate knowledge of Virginia’s four main physiographic provinces.

 

 

Relate Virginia’s mineral, rock, and metallic resources to Virginia’s geologic history.

 

 

Describe the importance of renewable and non-renewable resources.

 

 

 

Describe and analyze the importance of Virginia’s mined resources to Virginia, United States and World markets

 

Time

Anticipatory Set: Checking For Prior Knowledge

Pre-Assessment

10 min

 

 

Developing Rock and Mineral Knowledge

Lab 1: What is A Rock or Mineral?

10 min

 

 

PowerPoint: Virginia’s Renewable and Nonrenewable Resources

15 min

 

 

Lab 2: Mapping the Location of Ores

20 min

 

 

Post-Lab Discussion

Variable

 

 

Practice

Variable

 

 

Assessment

Variable

 

 

Materials

Handouts for the Students:

Lab 1: What Is A Rock or Mineral?

Lab 2: Mapping the Location of Ores

Pre-Assessment

 

General Materials for the Teacher

PowerPoint Presentation: Virginia’s Renewable and Nonrenewable Resources

Transparency: Map of Virginia

Overhead Projector

 

Lab Materials for Lab 1: What is A Rock or Mineral?

For each group of 4 students:

Rock and mineral hardness kit

Sample rock collection

Nail

For each student:

Goggles

 

Lab Materials for Lab 2: Mapping the Location of Ores

For each group of 4 students:

A map of Virginia (one for each student)

Colored pencils

Worksheets

Computers with Internet connections

Nonrenewable samples

Internet connection

 

State and National

Correlations

Virginia Standards of Learning: Science 6 (6.11); Earth Science (ES.1, ES.3, ES.9)


National Science Education Standards: Environment; Measurement process skills such as gathering, analyzing, synthesizing data; Science and technology.

 

Instructional

Strategies

1. Anticipatory Set
Ask the following questions:
What minerals do you use daily?
What minerals are essential for good health?
Where do minerals come from?

Give the Pre-Assessment (optional)

 

2. Lab 1: What Is a Rock or Mineral?

·  Collect, buy, or have students bring in common rocks and minerals from their communities.

·  Give each group a sample and have them complete the lab procedure.

·  After students have completed one sample, compare results.

·  If time permits, have the students complete multiple samples.

·  If applicable, complete the extensions on the student lab.

 

3. Explanation: Virginia’s Resources

·  Show the PowerPoint: Virginia’s Renewable and Non-Renewable Resources

·  Conduct a whole class discussion of the major points.

·  Present an overhead of a map of Virginia. Give each student a hardcopy of the overhead. Include the key roads and rivers. Review major regions of Virginia with the students.

 

4. Lab 2: Mapping the location of Ores
   
This lab is done with Virginia State highway maps and the web site,     http://arcims.mathsciencecenter.info.

·  Have students complete the information on one.

·  Discuss as a class.

·  To add interest, show students examples of common ores from www.rockhound.com

Examples

·  Coal - is used as an energy source for heating and to generate electricity. It can also be used for iron ore.

·  Kyanite - is used in making of high temperature refectories such as: spark plugs, tiles for the space shuttle, and freeze to ovenware.

·  Slate - is mined for use as architectural stone to decorate buildings.

·  Limestone - is used for agricultural stone to neutralize soil acid.

 

Practice

Guided Practice:

Students will identify formation of the resources as metamorphic, igneous, or sedimentary.

Independent Practice:

Students will compose a list of minerals used everyday. The students will research and identify the states and/or countries where these minerals are produces and create a poster illustrating the use.

 

Closure

Restate the lesson objectives and relate them to the learning experiences.

 

Have students devise a conservation plan in which they develop a possible solution to preserve Virginia’s nonrenewable resources while maintaining the economy. Ask students to write down one thing they learned about Virginia’s renewable and nonrenewable resources.

 

Extensions

1.   Explore the web site, http://departments.cvuhs.org/ken/geology. Students will learn about the formation of igneous, metamorphic, and sedimentary rocks through software practice and online virtual field trip.

 

2.   Making A Light Bulb.
Students will identify minerals and their costs.

 

3.   Money: Made of Metals and Promises.
Identify the minerals in our coins.

 

4.   Making a Rock Collection:

      A collection of common rock found in the student’s community can be made by asking each student to bring in one piece of rock. Explain to the students that it will not be necessary to know the name of all the rocks. Similar rocks can be placed together. Have students divide the collection into groups based on different characteristics such as shape, color, texture, and etc. Have the students find as many different ways as possible to group the rocks.

 

      Encourage the students to make an individual rock collection. Small shoeboxes can serve as a collection holder. The specimens may be kept separate by putting strips of cardboard for partitions. Have the students place a number on each rock using a small drop of whiteout. When the drop of white dries then write a number on it.

The students should section off a sheet of typing paper. The paper should have the same number of partitions as the collection. Write a number in each partition corresponding to the number of the rock. Once the rock has been correctly identified, the student should enter that identification in the square on the paper that corresponds to the rock.

 

5.   Field Trip to a Rock Quarry:
Plan a class trip to a rock quarry and plan to visit the quarry in advance. Have the students observe how the rock is removed. If the rock is sedimentary, examine the layers. Collects to take back to the classroom. Have students look for fossils.

 

Assessment

The following items are provided to assess students’ understanding:

·  Paper-Pencil Test: Virginia’s Mineral Resources

·  Product Task: Create a Rock Stamp

·  Rubric: Create a Rock Stamp

 

The following table shows how the assessment items are related to specific objectives.

 

Objective

Paper-

Pencil

Test

Product/
Performance

1. Analyze resources mined in Virginia

1,2,3,4

 

2. Describe the disadvantages and advantages of using non-renewable resources. Analyze the economic and environmental impact of non-renewable resources.

5

 

3. Identify and understand the processes that created Virginia’s nonrenewable resources.

10

 

4. Define the terms: renewable and nonrenewable and provide examples.

11

 

5. Relate the importance of renewable and nonrenewable resource to life on Earth.

13

 

6. Develop possible conservation methods

12

 

Major Understanding: Virginia can be divided into five physiographic provinces, based on the general configuration of the land surface.

Distinct combinations of rock types underlie each of these physiographic provinces, and each has a somewhat different geologic history. The processes by which Virginia’s nonrenewable resources were formed began millions of years ago and cannot be duplicated. Those nonrenewable resources have been mined and are very important to the state’s economy.

 

Product and Rubric

 

Teaching Tips

Background Information: Virginia’s Mineral Resources

Pre-Assessment Key

Key to Paper-Pencil Test: Virginia’s Mineral Resources

Frequently Asked Questions

 

References

American Geological Institute

This site lists the land, air, and water resources.
http://www.agiweb.org

 

Arizona Mining Association

Excellent resource the will enhance the study of the investigation of rock and minerals properties.

http://www.azcu.org

 

CVUHS

This is by far the most informative site. Take a quiz or a virtual field trip. http://departments.cvuhs.org/ken/geology/

 

Mathematics & Science Center

Visit the Center’s site to learn all that is new and happening at the Mathematics & Science Center. Register for student and teacher programs.

http://mathsciencecenter.info/

 

MathInScience

Visit this educational resource site to acquire web-based lessons and resources for students and teachers.

http://mathinscience.info/

 

Mineral Poster

This site list the United States imports and exports of rocks and minerals and you can request a mineral poster.
http://www.agiweb.org

 

The Rock

This site provides rock and mineral information and interactive teaching. http://www.luckstonerock.com

 

US Geological Survey, Water Resources Outreach Program

This site supplies great educational information about energy and mineral resources. http://usgs.gov

 

Wards Catalogs

Students can build their own collections; mineral specimens; rock specimens

http://www.wardsci.com /Promotions/catalogs